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HistoryVP-772 HistoryHistory

Circa 1953

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: Naval Aviation News April 1953 "...VP-772 Beats Bad Weather - Page 26 - Naval Aviation News - April 1953..." WebSite: http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/1950s/1953/apr53.pdf [29JUL2004]

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HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: UNIT: VP-17 PREVIOUS DES: VP-772 NAME: White Lightings TAIL CODE: BH ACTIVATED: 2-4-53 DEACTIVATED: TYPICAL LOCATION(S): NAS Whidbey Island, Washington
Books"Title: Lockheed P2V Neptune An Illustrated History by Wayne Mutza wmutza@wi.rr.com...A Schiffer Military History Book...ISBN: 0-7643-0151-9...286 pages full of pictures and history!

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: VP-772 Crew ThumbnailCameraVP-772 Crew "... NAS Iwakuni, Japan in 1953..." Contributed by AMS2 Jack Brown tazinc@gci.net via Bob McLaughlin banddmcl1964@msn.com [13FEB2001]


Circa 1952

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: History ThumbnailCameraVP-772 Squadron "...VP-772 (later VP-17) at NAS Sand Point, Seattle, Washington in 1952 before being relocated to NAS Whidbey Island, Washington..." Contributed by McLAUGHLIN, LT Bob banddmcl1964@msn.com [16JUN2012]

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "...FASRON-110, FASRON-112, FASRON-114, FASRON-117, FASRON-118, FASRON-119, FASRON-120, FASRON-885, FASRON-895, VP-1, VP-2, VP-4, VP-6, VP-9, VP-22, VP-28, VP-29, VP-40, VP-42, VP-46, VP-47, VP-731, VP-772, VP-871, VP-892 and VP-931) - Naval Aeronautical Organization OPNAV NOTICE 05400 for Fiscal Year 1953 dated 1 October 1952 is: DECLASSIFIED per Office of Chief of Naval Operations on 1 February 1965 by Op-501..." WebSite: Naval Historical Center http://www.history.navy.mil/a-record/nao53-68/fy1953-oct52.pdf [14MAR2007]

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HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: Naval Aviation News December 1952 "...VP Commanding Officers - Page 16 - Naval Aviation News - December 1952..." WebSite: http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/1950s/1952/dec52.pdf [28JUL2004]

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HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "...VP-772 was flying out of Sand Point, Seattle, WA in 1952. The squadron was activated and became VP-17. We were flying PB4Y-2's at the time and were sent to NAS Iwakuni, Japan in December of 1952. We flew anti-sub patrol for Task Force 77. When we returned to the States we were stationed at Ault Field on Whidbey Is., WA. At that time we were issued P2V-5's for training and later P2V-6's. The squadron returned to NAS Iwakuni, Japan in 1954 and back to NAS Whidbey Island, Washington in early 1955..." Contributed by John (Jack) W. Brown tazinc@gci.net [12JAN2001]

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: VP-772 Crew ThumbnailCameraVP-772 Crew "...NAS Sand Point, Seattle, WA 1952..." Contributed by AMS2 Jack Brown tazinc@gci.net via Bob McLaughlin banddmcl1964@msn.com [13FEB2001]


Circa 1951

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: History ThumbnailCameraVP-772 "...VP-772 - March 21, 1951 - UFO Tracking...Publication Number: T1206 - Publication Title: Project Blue Book, 1947-1969 - Publisher: NARA - Year: [ILLEGIBLE] - Month: [ILLEGIBLE] - Month Season Number: [ILLEGIBLE] - Location: [ILLEGIBLE] - Incident Number: [BLANK] - WebSite: http://www.footnote.com/..." Forwarded by Stephen Miller f134kilmil@comcast.net [14AUG2008]

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: History ThumbnailCameraVP-772 "...VP-772 - March 21, 1951 - UFO Tracking...Publication Number: T1206 - Publication Title: Project Blue Book, 1947-1969 - Publisher: NARA - Year: [ILLEGIBLE] - Month: [ILLEGIBLE] - Month Season Number: [ILLEGIBLE] - Location: [ILLEGIBLE] - Incident Number: [BLANK] - WebSite: http://www.footnote.com/..." Forwarded by Stephen Miller f134kilmil@comcast.net [14AUG2008]

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: Naval Aviation News August 1951 "...LT Bud Brown - Page 14 - Naval Aviation News - August 1951..." WebSite: http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/1950s/1951/aug51.pdf [24JUL2004]

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HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: Naval Aviation News March 1951 "...Stars Over The Atlantic - Page 30 - Naval Aviation News - March 1951..." WebSite: http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/1950s/1951/mar51.pdf [23JUL2004]

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HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "...12 JUN 51 - Two PB4Y-2s of VP-772 were transferred from NAS Atsugi, Japan, to Pusan, South Korea, to fly flare dropping missions for Marine Corps night attack aircraft. The success of the operation, which was conducted as an experiment, was such that the practice of assigning specially equipped patrol aircraft for this purpose was continued..." http://www.history.navy.mil/avh-1910/PART07.PDF [28MAY2003]

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "...The following is a list of some Reserve Squadrons ordered to active duty as of August 13, 1951. The information is in the following order: Station, Squadron, Date Activated, Assignment..." Contributed by Bill Larkins wtl@earthlink.net via KOONTS, AT2 Billy billkoonts@aol.com [11AUG2002]

NAS Minneapolis VP-812 (7-20-50) to FAW-4
NAS Seattle, Washington FASRON-895 (7-20-50) to FAW-4
NAS Seattle, Washington VP-892 (7-20-50) to FAW-4
NAS Willow Grove, Pennsylvania VP-931 (9-1-50) to FAW-4
NAS Los Alamitos, California VP-772 (9-1-50) to FAW-4
NAS Columbus FASRON-691 (9-1-50) to FASRON-691
NAS Norfolk, Virginia VP-861 (9-15-50) to FAW-11
NAS Squantum, Massachusetts FASRON-915 (9-15-50) to FAW-11
NAS Anacostia, Washington, D.C. VP-661 (9-15-50) to FAW-5
NAS Grosse ILE, Michigan VP-731 (9-29-50) to FAW-14
NAS Dallas, Texas FASRON-701 (2-1-51) to FASRON-701
NAS New Orleans, Louisiana FASRON-821 (2-1-51) to FASRON-821
NAS Jacksonville, Florida VP-741 (3-1-51) to FAW-11
NAS Memphis, Tennessee FASRON-795 (3-1-51) to FAW-5
NAS Oakland, California VP-871 (3-1-51) to FAW-4
NAS Olathe, Kansas FASRON-885 (3-1-51) to FAW-4
NAS Seattle, Washington VS-892 (7-20-50) VS-892
NAS Miami VS-801 (2-1-51) VS-801
NAS Willow Grove, Pennsylvania VS-931 (3-1-51) VS-931
NAS Squantum, Massachusetts VS-913 (4-1-51) VS-913
NAS Oakland, California VS-871 (5-1-51) VS-871
NAS New York, New York VS-831 (6-1-51) VS-831

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "01JAN51--KOREA--ARRIVED: 01JAN51 DEPARTED: 01AUG51 TAIL CODE: AIRCRAFT: P4Y-2/2S" http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/koreaob.htm

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "12JUN51--Two PB4Y-2's of VP-772 were transferred from NAS Atsugi, Japan, to Pusan to fly flare dropping missions for Marine Corps night attack aircraft. The success of the operation, which was conducted as an experiment, was such that the practice of assigning specially equipped patrol aircraft for this purpose was continued." http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/avchr7.htm


Circa 1950

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "...In Memory of Donald Harl Winton (VP-772 Crew 10), who served proudly, but saw to much to early in life..." Contributed by his daughter Marie texasmarie@socal.rr.com [09SEP2005]

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HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "...Patrol squadrons in the Korean War - Naval Aviation News, July-August, 2002 by Rick Burgess..." http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IAX/is_5_84/ai_90332255 [29MAR2005]

Because most of the combat action of the KOREAN WAR took place over the Korean peninsula, the bulk of the Navy's aerial contribution to the war took the form of carrier-based tactical aircraft. For Navy patrol squadrons (VP), the war was fought primarily on the peripheries of the main front, mostly in sea-control and sea-denial missions, and other roles such as mine hunting.

The Korean War was one hot spot of many along the Asian landmass attracting the attention of VP squadrons in the early 1950s. The broader Cold War was in full chill. The Soviet Union had tested its first nuclear weapons in 1949, and its large submarine fleet presented a credible threat to the Navy's carrier and amphibious task forces. Also in 1949, the Communist Chinese People's Liberation Army forces had pushed the Chinese Nationalist forces off the Asian mainland across the Formosa Strait onto Formosa (now Taiwan). French colonial forces in Indochina were embattled by an increasingly strong Viet Minh force led by Ho Chi Minh. From the Bering Strait to Singapore, Navy patrol planes had much to monitor.

Although the U.S. Seventh Fleet's carrier task forces were committed to the Korean area of operations, the fleet still was charged with the protection of Formosa. The fleet was able to maintain routine surveillance of the Formosa Strait with patrol aircraft, which made it impossible for the Communist Chinese to launch a surprise invasion of the island.

In the Korean area of operations, VP squadrons participated in the blockade of North Korea, keeping merchant shipping and fishing fleets under surveillance and deterring hostile submarine activity. In addition, patrol aircraft hunted and destroyed mines, dropped flares for air strikes, and conducted weather reconnaissance and search-and-rescue operations.

At the beginning of the Korean War, Pacific Fleet VP squadrons were equipped with three heavily armed aircraft types. Martin PBM-5/5S/5S2 Mariners were the only flying boats in active patrol squadrons (the P5M Marlin had not yet entered service.) Seaplanes were increasingly being displaced by land-based patrol bombers, such as the four-engine Consolidated Privateer P4Y-2/2S/2B, a holdover from WW II; and versions of the new twin-engine Lockheed Neptune (P2V2/3/3W/4/5), successor to the post-WWII PV-2 Harpoon patrol bomber.

The Pacific Fleet was equipped with only nine VP squadrons in June 1950, having disestablished four squadrons in the first half of the year. VP squadrons were based at NAS Whidbey Island, Washington; NAS North Island, San Diego, California; and NAS Barbers Point, Hawaii. They deployed to NAF Yokosuka, Japan; NS Sangley Point, Philippines.; NAS Kodiak, Alaska; and NAS Agana, Guam. By the end of 1950, seven reserve VP squadrons were activated, five of which were assigned to the Pacific Fleet. By the end of 1951, two more active duty VP squadrons were established in the Pacific Fleet, and two more reserve squadrons were activated to augment them. NAS Alameda, California, and NAS Seattle, Washington, accommodated some of the new squadrons. Only one Atlantic Fleet patrol squadron, VP-7 at NAS Quonset Point, Rhode Island, was deployed to the war zone, arriving less than one month before the truce on 30 June 1953.

When the war broke out in 1950, Fleet Air Wing FAW-1 at Guam controlled squadrons deployed to the western Pacific. In July 1950 FAW-1 moved to Naha, Okinawa, to control patrols over the Formosa Strait using one land-based and one flying boat squadron. FAW-6 was established at Atsugi, Japan, to coordinate patrols in the Yellow Sea and Sea of Japan. Eventually the typical strength of FAW-6 included three land-plane squadrons and two flying boat squadrons, as well as two squadrons of Royal Air Force Sunderland flying boats. These command structures remained in place throughout the war, except during a short period when they were relieved by FAW-2 and FAW-14, respectively.

Only eight patrol planes--PBMs assigned to VP-46 and the squadron it was relieving, VP-47--patrolled the Far East when the North Korean invasion began, while VP-28's PB4Ys were deployed to NAS Agana, Guam. Soon, VP-47 was regrouped and retained on deployment, VP-6's P2V-3s arrived at Johnson Air Base near Tokyo, Japan, and VP-42's PBMs staged at Iwakuni, Japan. VP-28 staged to NAF Naha, Okinawa, Japan and began daily patrols of the Formosa Strait and the coast of China. Other squadrons rotated in turn, and also deployed to far-flung bases and anchorages such as Hong Kong; the Pescadores, Buckner Bay and NAF Kadena, Okinawa, Japan; Tachikawa and Itami in Japan; and NAS Kodiak, Alaska and Shemya in the Aleutians.

As the North Korean invasion pushed south, VP-6's Neptunes were used on three occasions to provide naval gunfire spotting for United Nations warships on the western coast of South Korea. The squadron's P2V-3s, armed with 20mm cannon, bombs and rockets, also launched many attacks themselves against North Korean targets along the northeast shore.

On 29 July 1950, two crews destroyed a railroad train with their rockets and guns. On 13 August, crews sank three boats and two barges engaged in minelaying near Chinnampo, and damaged two surface craft near Wonsan. One VP-6 Neptune was damaged in the attack. An attack on a patrol boat near Chinnampo on 16 August was fatal to another VP-6 aircraft, which ditched after taking fire. The crew was rescued by the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Kenya. Patrol planes were prohibited thereafter from undertaking attack missions over Korea. VP-6 became the only patrol squadron awarded the Navy Unit Citation during the Korean War.

Patrol planes--PBMs, P2Vs and Sunderlands--were used extensively in mine hunting, particularly in the harbors of Inchon and Wonsan. This tedious activity required the PBMs to fly low and slow, close enough to detonate a moored mine with machine gunfire, but high enough to avoid the mine's explosion. P2Vs dropped depth charges to wipe out magnetic mines.

In 1951 VP squadrons were pressed into another role, this time over land, dropping illumination flares in support of air strikes. Known as Firefly missions, they helped deny the night to enemy supply movements. Admiral Arthur W. Radford suggested the use of P4Y-2 Privateers as flare ships to replace the more vulnerable R4D Skytrains in illuminating targets for Marine Corps F4U-5N Corsair and F7F-3N Tigercat night hecklers. One P4Y from VP-772 was modified For the mission and proved highly successful, and three more P4Ys from VP-772 and VP-28 were assigned as "Lamp Lighters" (later operated by successive squadrons). During a typical mission, the P4Y would rendezvous with four attack aircraft, search for truck convoys and illuminate the targets for the attack aircraft.

Although United Nations forces were successful in maintaining air superiority over most of the Korean peninsula, lumbering patrol aircraft had a few encounters with enemy aircraft. A VP-42 Mariner was damaged on 11 May 1952 by a MiG-15 fighter over the Yellow Sea, and on 31 July 1952 a VP-731 PBM was seriously damaged by gunfire from a MiG-15, which killed two crewmen and injured two others.

Flights off China and the Soviet Union, far from protective cover, were more dangerous. VP-28 P4Ys were attacked over the Formosa Strait on 26 July by an F-51 Mustang in North Korean markings, and on 20 September and 22 November 1950 by MiG-15s, all without result. A VP-42 PBM was lost to unknown causes in the southern Formosa Strait on 5 November. On 6 November 1951 a VP-6 P2V-3W was shot down, with no survivors, by Soviet fighters near Vladivostok. On 18 January 1953 Chinese antiaircraft batteries shot down a VP-22 P2V off Swatow. A Coast Guard PBM-5G picked up the survivors but crashed on takeoff, resulting in the loss of 11 fliers, including 7 from the P2V. The survivors were rescued by a Navy ship. Further such aircraft incidents and losses occurred in the years after the Korean truce.

One daring P2V crew amazingly survived a series of eight or nine intentional overflights of the Soviet Union's Kamchatka peninsula between April and June 1952. A VP-931 P2V-3W--modified with special electronic intelligence equipment in its nose and flown by a handpicked crew--flew in radio silence over the peninsula at 15,000 feet in search of military installations. When military sites were detected, an Air Force RB-50 flying above and behind the P2V photographed the sites. The snoopers were intercepted on two missions by Soviet MiG fighters but apparently never were fired upon. Fortunately, the recently declassified operations never required the services of the Air Force SB-17 rescue plane assigned to the missions. This VP-931 (later VP-57) crew also performed a daring search and rescue flight in July 1953 over Vladivostok harbor for the crew of an RB-50 that was shot down by Soviet fighters. A U.S. destroyer rescued one of the crewmen.

Land-based patrol planes saw greater use than flying boats in the Korean War, proving to be more efficient. In Korea, land-based patrol planes flew 12 sorties for every 9 flown by flying boats.

As with U.S. forces in general, patrol aviation maintained a high level of presence in the Far East after the Korean War. Its operations increasingly focused on peripheral reconnaissance of the Soviet Union and China, particularly surveillance of the growing Soviet submarine force and vigilance against Chinese sabre-rattling against Formosa.

U.S. Navy Patrol Squadrons in the Korean War

Squadron    Aircraft    Tail Code    Home Port

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "...Minutemen of naval aviation: the naval air reserve in Korea - Naval Aviation News, Sept-Oct, 2001 by Hill Goodspeed..." [28MAR2005]

Patrol squadrons (VP) were among the first from the Naval Air Reserve to deploy overseas. Recalled to active duty on 20 July 1950, VP-892 reported to NAS North Island, San Diego, California the following month, and on 18 December logged its first mission, the first by a reserve squadron during the Korean War. Eventually, seven recalled patrol squadrons served during the conflict, flying PBM-5 Mariners, PB4Y/P4Y-2 Privateers and P2V-2/3 Neptunes. The crews flew a variety of missions, including long-range antisubmarine warfare and reconnaissance flights in the Sea of Japan and along the coasts of China and North Korea. This could get dangerous, as evidenced by the experiences of a VP-731 crew operating over the Yellow Sea off the west coast of Korea. On 31 July 1952, two Chinese MiG-15 jets attacked a squadron PBM-5S2, killing two crewmen and wounding two others. The plane's pilot, Lieutenant E. E. Bartlett, Jr., descended to low altitude, weaving in an effort to avoid further attack, and limped to Paengyong, South Korea, where he made an emergency landing. Two squadrons, VP-772 and VP-871, harkened back to the days of the famous "Black Cat" patrol squadrons by operating at night over Korea, dropping flares to support night interdiction and close air support missions by Marine Corps aircraft.

While patrol aircraft were the first elements of the Naval Air Reserve to see service in Korea, the weekend warriors flying fighter and attack aircraft made a sizable contribution as well. Of the 24 deployments by fleet carriers during the Korean War, nearly one-third of them had at least one reserve squadron operating from the flight deck.

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: Naval Aviation News October 1950 "...Reserves Gear For Action - Page 30 - 31 - Naval Aviation News - October 1950..." WebSite: http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/1950s/1950/oct50.pdf [22JUL2004]

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HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: VP-772 History "...VP-772 A History - September, 1950 through February 1953 - illegitimus non carborundum - Frank Tatu...All (many!) pictures have been removed. Contact Mr. Tatu to obtain complete booklet..." Contributed by Frank Tatu seagoing@erols.com [02OCT2000]



Preface


US Navy Reserve VP-772 evolved from VP-ML-66 in February, 1950, when it was established at NAS Los Alamitos, California. It was "augmented" into the regular Navy in February, 1953, as VP-17.

During its two and one-half years of existence, VP-772 served two tours in the Korean War combat zone. It established a number of fIrsts. It was one of the first reserve patrol squadrons mobilized by President Truman after the outbreak of the Korean War on June 25, 1950 it was one of the first land-based reserve patrol squadrons to fly combat missions in the Korean theater, eventually completing 435 such missions. It was the first to undertake flare drops in support of Marine air operations in Korea. And it was among the first to deliver military assistance to anti-communist forces in Indochina.

During the 50 years since VP-772 was called to active duty , there have been four squadron Reunions. This history was prepared for the fifth Reunion: Seattle, September 1-3,2000, and for the commemoration of the Korean War. It is hoped it will help jog memories, pleasant and otherwise. Readers are enjoined to charitably consider that 50 years is a heck of a long time, and material for efforts such as this rather sparse. I ask that errors and omissions be called to my attention and perhaps a better edition can be produced for the next Reunion.

Thanks to those shipmates who contributed: Sandy Sandstrom, John Gilbertson, Byron Morgan, Dick Smith, and Larry Jenkins. Special thanks are due also to LCDR Jeffrey A. Bender, USNR, of the Korean War Commemoration Committee, for his assistance and encouragement, and to Linda Sandstrom. Frank Tatu, July, 2000.
VP-772 TIME LINE

1949
    VP-ML-66 redesignated VP-772, not to take effect until February 1950 (during reorganization of Naval Aviation reserve units).

1950 FEB
    VP-772 established, LCDR D.D. Nittinger, USNR, commanding, LCDR James F. Hayward, USNR, Executive Officer

1950 JUN 25
    North Korean forces invade South Korea.

AUG 18
    Ready Reserves to staff squadron receive orders.

SEP 1
    VP-772 activated by President Harry S. Truman, among first reserve squadrons called up.

SEP 5
NOV
    Secret orders instruct squadron to break training cycle and assist in ferrying PB4Y's to French forces in Saigon, Indochina.

1951 JAN 15
JAN 26
    VP-772 elements proceeding to Japan by sea, cross International Date Line at 23 34/N, 178 40'. At this juncture, VP-772 consists of 280 enlisted men and 46 officers.

JAN 31
    VP-772 arrrives NAS Atsugi, Japan, with detachment of RAAF Iwakuni, becoming among the first land-based reserve squadrons in combat zone, and begins primary operations.

FEB 2
    Sea draft arrives after 16 days afloat.

April 16
    Dimissed by President Truman, Gen. Douglas MacArthur leaves Japan from Atsugi. Multitudes of Japanese line his route from Tokyo.

JUN 12
    Two VP-772 PB4Ys deployed to K-1, Pusan, Korea, begin pioneering flare drops in support of close air support and ground troop night operations.

    PB4Y-2 designation changed to P4Y-2, suggesting aircraft no longer has bombing, "B" mission (new designation, however, rarely used).

JUL 27
AUG 4
    Squadron personnel proceeding CONLUS by sea board USNS M. M. Patrick at Yokohama.

AUG 5
AUG 7
    VP-772 aircraft arrive NAS Seattle (Sand Point).

1952 JAN 28
FEB 5
    VP-772 relieves VP-9 as Ready Mining Squadron, Pacific Fleet, under operational control of FAW-2 and administrative control of Fleet Air, Hawaii. CDR D. D. Nittinger, USNR, Commanding, 46 officers, 313 enlisted.

JUN 9
    LCDR Jim Hayward, USNR, replaces CDR D. D. Nittinger, USNR, as CO, VP-772.

JUN 27
JUL 1
    VP-772 arrives at NAS Seattle, Washington for operations, regrouping and retraining under operational control of FAW-4, administrative control of Fleet Air, Seattle. 43 officers and 279 enlisted. Planning for turnover of about 50 percent of personnel.

AUG 11
    CO James F. Hayward, USNR, relieved by CDR Robert L. Dahllof and LCDR W. S. Dunham.

NOV 12
    Aircraft BUNO: 59923 crashes in Olympic mountains of Washington, all 11 aboard perish, including observer, Commander of FAW-4.

DEC 22
DEC 30
    Under logistical control of Fleet Air, Japan, and administrative and operational control of Fleet Air Wing FOURTEEN, squadron begins operations from Iwakuni, with maintenance detachment of one officer and 60 enlisted also at NAS Atsugi, Japan.

1953 FEB 4
    VP-772 augmented into regular Navy as VP-17. For period before returns to CONLUS, however, squadron frequently used "VP-772/VP-17."

JUL 27
    Armistice signed, effectively ending war.

1954
    Fleet Air Seattle redesignated Fleet Air Whidbey.

1956 NOV
1957
    VP-17 changes Tail Code from "BH" to "ZE."

1970
1995
MAR 31
1998 April
2000 SEP 3
    US Secretary of Defense Wm. S. Cohen designates VP-772 as a "Commemorative Community" of the Korean War during squadron's 50 year anniversary Reunion at Seattle.

HistoryA BIT OF HISTORY: "...Patrol Squadrons In The Korean War By LCDR Rick Burgess, USN (Retired) - Naval Aviation News July-August 2002..." Contributed by Mike Yared mikeyared@yahoo.com [25JAN2003]
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